Science

Here are some of the latest independent, peer-reviewed and published studies, reports and analysis documenting biological harm from exposure to RF radiation and electromagnetic fields. 

In many of these studies, laboratory animals are used to determine the toxicity of the exposures. According to the National Institutes of Health, "Mice and rats have long served as the preferred species for biomedical research due to their anatomical, physiological, and genetic similarity to humans."

We also note that RF radiation is the same, whether it comes from cell phones, routers, tablets, laptops or cell towers.

We are grateful to our friends at Environmental Health Trust for helping to provide this information. 

For a comprehensive listing of health effects related to exposure to wireless radiation please visit www.grassrootsinfo.org/emergingscience.php

CANCER

 

Development of health-based exposure limits for radiofrequency radiation from wireless devices using a benchmark dose approach. Uche, U., et al. Environmental Health, 20(84). (2021). 

 

Lost Opportunities for Cancer Prevention: Historical Evidence on Early Warnings with Emphasis on Radiofrequency Radiation. Hardell, L., et al. Reviews on Environmental Health 000010151520200168. (2021). 

 

Commentary on the utility of the National Toxicology Program study on cell phone radiofrequency radiation data for assessing human health risks despite unfounded criticisms aimed at minimizing the findings of adverse health effects. Melnick, R. Environmental Research 168:1-6. (2019).

 

National Toxicology Technical Report on Cell Phones and Cancer.Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies in Sprague Dawley (Hsd:Sprague Dawley SD) Rats Exposed to Whole-body Radio Frequency Radiation at a Frequency (900 Mhz) and Modulations (GSM and CDMA) Used by Cell Phones. National Toxicology Program TR595:1-466. (2018). 

 

Thermal and non-thermal health effects of low intensity non-ionizing radiation: An international perspective. Belpomme, D., et al. Environmental Pollution 242(Part A):643-658. (2018). 

 

Report of Final Results Regarding Brain and Heart Tumors in Sprague-Dawley Rats Exposed From Prenatal Life Unitl Natural Death to Mobile Phone Radiofrequency Field Representative of a 1.8 GHz GSM Base Station Environmental Emission. Falcioni, L, et al. Environmental Research 165:496-503. (2018). 

 

Wi-Fi Is an Important Threat to Human Health. Pall, M. Environmental Research 164:405-416. (2018). 

 

Children Absorb Higher Doses of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation From Mobile Phones Than Adults. Morris, R., et al. IEEE Access: The Journal for Rapid Open Access Publishing Doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2015.2478701. (2015). 

 

Why children absorb more microwave radiation than adults: The consequences. Morgan, L.L, et al. Journal of Microscopy and Ultrastructure 2(4):197-204. (2014). 

 

Exposure to Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields and the Risk of Childhood Cancer: Update of the Epidemiological Evidence. Schüz, J. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 107(3):339-342. (2011). 

NEUROLOGICAL/COGNITIVE EFFECTS

Development of health-based exposure limits for radiofrequency radiation from wireless devices using a benchmark dose approach. Uche, U., et al. Environmental Health, 20(84). (2021). 

Testing of behavioral and cognitive development in rats after prenatal exposure to 1800 and 2400 MHz radiofrequency fields. Li, Z.Q., et al. Journal of Radiation Research 61(2):197-206. (2020). 

 

Electrohypersensitivity as a Newly Identified and Characterized Neurologic Pathological Disorder: How to Diagnose, Treat, and Prevent It. Belpomme, D., et al. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21(6):1915. (2020). 

 

Long-term exposure of 2450 MHz electromagnetic radiation induces stress and anxiety like behavior in rats. Gupta, S.K., et al. Neurochemistry International 128:1-13. (2019). 

 

A Prospective Cohort Study of Adolescents’ Memory Performance and Individual Brain Dose of Microwave Radiation from Wireless Communication. Foerster, M., et al. Environmental Health Perspectives 126(7). (2018). 

 

Electromagnetic radiation 2450 MHz exposure causes cognition deficit with mitochondrial dysfunction and activation of intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in rats. Gupta, S., et al. Journal of Biosciences 43(2):263-276. (2018). 

 

Thermal and non-thermal health effects of low intensity non-ionizing radiation: An international perspective. Belpomme, D., et al. Environmental Pollution 242(Part A):643-658. (2018).

 

From the Cover: 2.45-GHz Microwave Radiation Impairs Hippocampal Learning and Spatial Memory: Involvement of Local Stress Mechanism-Induced Suppression of iGluR/ERK/CREB Signaling. Shahin, S., et al. Toxicological Sciences 161(2):349-374. (2018). 

 

Wi-Fi Is an Important Threat to Human Health. Pall, M. Environmental Research 164:405-416. (2018). 

 

Electromagnetic Fields, Pulsed Radiofrequency Radiation, and Epigenetics: How Wireless Technologies May Affect Childhood Development. Sage, C., et al. Child Development 89(1):129-136. (2017). 

 

The Effect of Wi-Fi Electromagnetic Waves in Unimodal and Multimodal Object Recognition Tasks in Male Rats. Hassanshahi, A., et al. Neurological Sciences 38(6):1069-1076. (2017). 

 

Oxidative stress of brain and liver is increased by Wi-Fi (2.45GHz) exposure of rats during pregnancy and the development of newborns. Çelik, Ö., et al. Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 75(Part B):134-139. (2016). 

 

Prospective Cohort Analysis of Cellphone Use and Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in Children. Sudan, M., et al. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 70(12):1207-1213. (2016). 

 

Effects of 2.4 GHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi equipment on microRNA expression in brain tissue. Dasdag, S., et al. International Journal of Radiation Biology 91(7):555-561. (2015). 

 

Cognitive impairment and neurogenotoxic effects in rats exposed to low-intensity microwave radiation. Deshmukh, P.S., et al. International Journal of Toxicology 34(3):284-290. (2015). 

 

Low intensity microwave radiation induced oxidative stress, inflammatory response and DNA damage in rat brain. Megha, K. et al. NeuroToxicology 51:158-165. (2015). 

 

2.45 GHz Microwave Radiation Impairs Learning and Spatial Memory via Oxidative/Nitrosative Stress Induced p53-Dependent/Independent Hippocampal Apoptosis: Molecular Basis and Underlying Mechanism. Shahin, S., et al. Toxicological Sciences 148(2):380-399. (2015).

Why children absorb more microwave radiation than adults: The consequences. Morgan, L.L, et al. Journal of Microscopy and Ultrastructure 2(4):197-204. (2014). 

 

Effects of wi-fi signals on the p300 component of event-related potentials during an auditory hayling task. Papageorgiou, C., et al. Journal of Integrative Neuroscience 10(2):189-202. (2011). 

 

Wi-Fi Electromagnetic Fields Expert Gender Related Alterations of EEG. Maganioti, A., et al. (2010). 

 

Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and Behavioral Problems in Bavarian Children and Adolescents. Thomas, S., et al. European Journal of Epidemiology 25(2):135-41. (2009). 

Single- and Double-Strand DNA Breaks in Rat Brain Cells After Acute Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation. Lai, H., et al. International Journal of Radiation Biology 69(4):513-521. (2009). 

 

Single strand DNA breaks in rat brain cells exposed to microwave radiation. Paulraj, R., et al. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 596(1-2):76-80. (2006). 

REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS

 

Development of health-based exposure limits for radiofrequency radiation from wireless devices using a benchmark dose approach. Uche, U., et al. Environmental Health, 20(84). (2021). 

 

Thermal and non-thermal health effects of low intensity non-ionizing radiation: An international perspective. Belpomme, D., et al. Environmental Pollution 242(Part A):643-658. (2018).

Wi-Fi Is an Important Threat to Human Health. Pall, M. Environmental Research 164:405-416. (2018). 

 

Long-term exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and Wi-Fi devices decreases plasma prolactin, progesterone, and estrogen levels but increases uterine oxidative stress in pregnant rats and their offspring. Yüksel, M., et al. Endocrine 52(2):352-362. (2016). 

 

Children Absorb Higher Doses of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation From Mobile Phones Than Adults. Morris, R., et al. IEEE Access: The Journal for Rapid Open Access Publishing Doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2015.2478701. (2015). 

 

Why children absorb more microwave radiation than adults: The consequences. Morgan, L.L, et al. Journal of Microscopy and Ultrastructure 2(4):197-204. (2014). 

 

The effects of long-term exposure to a 2450 MHz electromagnetic field on growth and pubertal development in female Wistar rats. Sangun, O., et al. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 34(1):63-71. (2013). 

 

Immunohistopathologic demonstration of deleterious effects on growing rat testes of radiofrequency waves emitted from conventional Wi-Fi devices. Atasoy, H.I., et al. Journal of Pediatric Urology 9(2):223-239. (2013). 

 

Use of Laptop Computers Connected to Internet Through Wi-Fi Decreases Human Sperm Motility and Increases Sperm DNA Fragmentation. Avendano, C., et al. Fertility and Sterility 97(1):39-45. (2012). 

 

Effects of microwave at 2.45 GHz radiations on reproductive system of male rats. Kesari, K.K., et al. Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry 92(6):1135-1147. (2010).

Chronic non-thermal exposure of modulated 2450 MHz microwave radiation alters thyroid hormones and behavior of male rats. Sinha, R.K. International Journal of Radiation Biology 84(6):505-513. (2008). 

OTHER HEALTH EFFECTS

 

Development of health-based exposure limits for radiofrequency radiation from wireless devices using a benchmark dose approach. Uche, U., et al. Environmental Health, 20(84). (2021). 

 

Hepatic injury induced by radio frequency waves emitted from conventional Wi-Fi devices in Wistar rats. Fahmy, H.M., et al. Human & Experimental Toxicology 40(1):136-147. (2021). 

 

Building Science and Radiofrequency Radiation: What Makes Smart and Healthy  Buildings. Clegg, F., et al. Building and Environment 176(106324):1-15. (2020).

Exposure to a 2.5 GHz Non-ionizing Electromagnetic Field Alters Hematological Profiles, Biochemical Parameters, and Induces Oxidative Stress in Male Albino Rats. Bamikole, A.O., et al. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 32(11):860-863. (2019). 

 

Commentary on the utility of the National Toxicology Program study on cell phone radiofrequency radiation data for assessing human health risks despite unfounded criticisms aimed at minimizing the findings of adverse health effects. Melnick, R. Environmental Research 168:1-6. (2019).

National Toxicology Technical Report on Cell Phones and Cancer.Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies in Sprague Dawley (Hsd:Sprague Dawley SD) Rats Exposed to Whole-body Radio Frequency Radiation at a Frequency (900 Mhz) and Modulations (GSM and CDMA) Used by Cell Phones. National Toxicology Program TR595:1-466. (2018). 

Numerical evaluation of human exposure to WiMax patch antenna in tablet or laptop. Siervo, B., et al. Bio Electro Magnetics 39(5):414-422. (2018). 

 

Report of Final Results Regarding Brain and Heart Tumors in Sprague-Dawley Rats Exposed From Prenatal Life Unitl Natural Death to Mobile Phone Radiofrequency Field Representative of a 1.8 GHz GSM Base Station Environmental Emission. Falcioni, L, et al. Environmental Research 165:496-503. (2018). 

 

Wi-Fi Is an Important Threat to Human Health. Pall, M. Environmental Research 164:405-416. (2018). 

 

RAPD Profiling, DNA Fragmentation, and Histomorphometric Examination in Brains of Wistar Rats Exposed to Indoor 2.5 Ghz Wi-Fi Devices Radiation. Ibitayo, A.O., et al. BioMed Research International 2017(8653286):1-6. (2017). 

 

Measurements of Radiofrequency Radiation with a Body-Borne Exposimeter in Swedish Schools with Wi-Fi. Hedendahl, L.K., et al. Frontiers in Public Health 5(279):1-14. (2017). 

Oxidative stress of brain and liver is increased by Wi-Fi (2.45GHz) exposure of rats during pregnancy and the development of newborns. Çelik, Ö., et al. Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 75(Part B):134-139. (2016). 

Effects of long-term pre- and post-natal exposure to 2.45 GHz wireless devices on developing male rat kidney. Kuybulu, A.E., et al. Renal Failure 38(4):571-580. (2016). 

 

Effects of acute exposure to WIFI signals (2.45 GHz) on heart variability and blood pressure in Albinos rabbit. Saili, L., et al. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. 40(2):600-605. (2015). 

 

Children Absorb Higher Doses of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation From Mobile Phones Than Adults. Morris, R., et al. IEEE Access: The Journal for Rapid Open Access Publishing Doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2015.2478701. (2015).   

Electrohypersensitivity: A Functional Impairment Due to an Inaccessible Environment. Johansson, O. Reviews on Environmental Health 30(4):311-321. (2015). 

 

Why children absorb more microwave radiation than adults: The consequences. Morgan, L.L, et al. Journal of Microscopy and Ultrastructure 2(4):197-204. (2014). 

 

Electromagnetic fields act via activation of voltage-gated calcium channels to produce beneficial or adverse effects. Pall, M.L. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine. 17(8):958–965. (2013). 

 

The Sensitivity of Children to Electromagnetic Fields. Kheifets, L., et al. Deventer Journal of Pediatrics 116(2):303-313. (2005).